The struggle between the Rebel Alliance and the Galactic Empire in the original Star Wars trilogy was a brutal conflict that took place on distant worlds and in the darkness of space. The scenes of interstellar warfare involving the vessels of the Rebel Alliance were memorable, but the type and strength of the Rebel forces in each engagement also paralleled the developments in the trilogy’s plot pertaining to the Rebellion’s progress towards success.
Engagement at Tatooine
The opening scene of A New Hope introduced the plight of the Alliance in appropriate fashion. The relatively small Tantive IV was being pursued by a massive Imperial Star Destroyer, ultimately being swallowed whole into the maw of an Imperial hangar bay. At that point in time, the Rebellion was in its infancy and existed in the underbelly of society. The fact that the Tantive IV operated under the guise of a courier ship mirrored the Rebel operatives’ attempts to hide themselves from the Empire. The fragility of the growing rebellion was represented by the bulky Star Destroyer’s ability to easily overpower the tiny vessel. The transition from secret Rebel transport to a vessel returning fire on an Imperial ship symbolized the emergence of open Rebellion and the beginning of the Galactic Civil War.
Battle of Yavin
Before long, the fledgling Alliance was forced to face the Death Star at Yavin IV with a mere handful of Y-wings and their X-wing escorts. The Alliance could only muster snubfighters to combat the destructive power of the Death Star, and the Empire did not even see fit to deploy capital ships or starfighters in defense of their station. Similarly, the Imperials still perceived their adversaries as a nuisance to be eradicated rather than a legitimate threat to their rule. Once the Imperials discovered the flaw in the Death Star’s design and realized they may be in danger, the decision to send out a trio of TIE fighters marked the turning point when the Rebellion itself began to be seen as more than just a thorn in the side of the Empire. Yet, the Rebel Alliance’s status as a contender was still tenuous. Without the intervention of the Millennium Falcon, whose appearance was symbolic of more citizens being drawn to the Rebel cause, Luke Skywalker may not have had the chance to take his fateful shot and destroy the Death Star.
Battle of Hoth
While the destruction of the Death Star was a significant defeat for the Empire, the battle in the Hoth system proved that the Imperials still had the upper hand. When they were discovered, the Rebels immediately started an evacuation instead of planning on entering into a prolonged space battle. The power of the Empire, represented by Darth Vader’s flagship Executor and her Star Destroyer escorts, was much stronger than anything the Rebellion could counter with at the time. As demonstrated by the makeup of the Alliance fleet, which consisted of starfighters and small transports, the goal for the gallant freedom fighters was evasion rather than engagement. No Rebel capital ships were at Hoth to combat the Star Destroyers, so pairs of X-wings were forced to escort transports away from danger. The Rebellion had grown in strength, but time was still necessary to build up their fleet and fleeing was a necessity.
The Fleet After Bespin
Following the encounter at Cloud City, viewers were treated to the first glimpse of the Rebellion coming together as an effective fighting force. The rendezvous between the Millennium Falcon and the primary Rebel fleet, consisting of small frigates, transports, and starfighters, displayed that the strength of the Rebellion was growing. However, this force was still minuscule compared to the Executor and the rest of the Imperial Fleet. As such, the Alliance vessels remained on the run to plot their next move rather than go on the offensive.
Gathering Forces for Endor
The next glimpse of the Rebel fleet provided a much different picture. After the rescue of Han Solo from Jabba’s palace, the Alliance began to amass their forces for an assault on the second Death Star. Bolstered by the addition of vast Mon Calamari capital ships, Corellian corvettes, and frigates, the military might of the Rebellion was at its peak. The armada reflected that support for the cause had come a long way since the Battle of Yavin, and Mon Mothma saw an opportunity to take the fight to the Empire. Nevertheless, the battle plan for Endor hinged on subterfuge, with any hope for success relying on the commando team aboard the stolen Imperial shuttle Tydirium. The necessity of this covert operation aboard a single transport represented the notion that the improved Rebel fleet could still not go toe-to-toe with their Imperial counterparts, and that the Rebel Alliance itself was still dwarfed by the Empire.
Battle of Endor
The Rebellion’s crescendo occurred during the Battle of Endor, where the Rebel fleet faced an Imperial trap that consisted of the Executor, more than 30 Star Destroyers, and a fully operational second Death Star. The disparity between the two armadas was significant and once again paralleled the notion that even a strengthened Rebel Alliance was no match for the Galactic Empire in direct combat. Much like the Rebellion itself, which stressed the rights of the individual, the tide of the final struggle turned on the actions of the Alliance’s starfighter pilots and the crew of the Millennium Falcon. While the Rebel capital ships occupied their Imperial counterparts and provided covering fire, the two crucial deathblows to the Empire were dealt by the few, rather than the many. Its bridge shields eradicated, the Executor was crippled by the final flight of a doomed A-wing. The vaunted Death Star II was infiltrated and destroyed by the Millennium Falcon and Rebel fighters. These actions mirrored the notion that the Rebellion was centered on the power of individual freedom.
The transition of the Rebel Alliance from underground movement to open rebellion and, eventually, a full-fledged contender for the throne of galactic power, was paralleled the entire way by the Rebel fleet’s own transition from undercover couriers to starfighters and powerful capital ships. However, no matter how strong the Rebellion and its fleet became, it never equaled the reach or the power of the Imperial government and its starfleet. In the end, it was the determination and audacity of individual diplomats, leaders, and star pilots which allowed the Rebel Alliance to triumph over the Galactic Empire.
Jay Stobie is a science fiction writer who admits he has a perfectly normal obsession with Star Wars, Star Trek, and the various starships that inhabit those two universes. He can be found on Twitter at @CaptStobie.